November 29, 1999
Human Rights And Environmental Violations in Maheshwar Project
Revoke Environmental and Techno-Economic Clearance
Around 500 people, both men and women - peasants, dalits, Kevats and
Kahars, affected by the Maheshwar dam being built on the Narmada river
began their dharna at Rajghat in Delhi on the 29th of November.
They will sit in dharna for the next 3 days. Their main demands are that in
light of clear and proved violations and the recently available and
very critical Environmental ministry report, the environmental and
techno-economic clearances for the project must be immediately withdrawn
and the project brought to a halt.
The Maheshwar Project being built on the Narmada in Madhya Pradesh will
affect around 40,000 people in 61 villages in the region, submerging
hundreds of acres of fertile, irrigated black cotton soils, scores of
sand quarries and a rich riverine economy. This dam is a hydro-electric
project with no irrigation potential. Although the project will have a
proposed installed capacity of 400 MW, the average firm power will be
only 82 MW, and power production in the 8 non-monsoon months will not be
more than one-and-a half hours a day. Yet the cost of power from this
project will be prohibitively high - an average of Rs. 6 to 8 per unit,
with the cost of peaking power being Rs. 8 to 10 per unit at point of
production. It may be recalled that the project was privatized in 1994
and handed over to the S. Kumars, and that the S. Kumars have even
prior to the financial closure, inflated the project costs by 5 times
from Rs. 465 crores to Rs. 2000 crores in the course of just 5 years.
It is clear that nobody will be able to buy the expensive Maheshwar
electricity. Furthermore, it is expected that when this expensive power
feeds into the Madhya Pradesh grid rising power costs will lead to a
decline in agricultural and industrial production, and consequently to
the pauperization of the peasantry.
The Narmada Bachao Andolan has determinedly and resolutely fought the
destructive Maheshwar dam over the last three years, and constantly
challenged the underestimation of economic, environmental and cultural
costs of the dam and the concurrent overstatement of benefits.
It was when the project promoters were unable to offer or give
cultivable agricultural land to a single project affected family, that
the NBA petitioned the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) in
1998 demanding that environmental clearance be immediately revoked.
Following this, a joint team of officials from the MOEF, Rural
Development Ministry and Water Resources Ministry conducted a field
visit in the Maheshwar Project impact zone on 14-15 October 1998.
It maybe noted that the Environment Ministry had stipulated in its
conditional clearance of 7 January, 1994 that all persons affected by
the Maheshwar project must be rehabilitated and resettled by 1997-98.
This environmental clearance
which is a statutory requirement also clearly stated that the
Environment Ministry reserves the right to revoke the Environmental
Clearance of the Project (under the Environment Protection Act 1986) in
case of violation of stipulated conditions.
The Madhya Pradesh government's rehabilitation policy for the oustees of
the Narmada Project (1997) which stipulates land-for-land based
rehabilitation was strengthened by subsequent clearance conditions which
stated that this package must be extended to adult sons, landless
people and encroachers. The environmental clearance also stated that
land capability surveys must be carried out in order to establish the
cultivability of lands and that project work could only be initiated
after all arrangements for rehabilitation and environmental mitigation
were in place.
The investigation report, which has now become available, has accepted
that the project affected area is "prosperous and wealthy" with "deep
fertile and black cotton soil irrigated by pipelines drawn from the
Narmada river and follow three crop rotations in a year" and a variety
of rich riverine resources. Moreover, while the State's Rehabilitation
Policy provides "land for land" it notes that there is actually no
agricultural land available for the rehabilitation of project affected
people. The Ministry report has clearly recommended that in order for
the Ministry to take a decision on whether to revoke the environmental
clearance the project authorities must be asked to identify and
demonstrate sufficient agricultural land for the rehabilitation of the
oustees within 3 months, as well as conduct a resurvey of the area and
number of people to be affected by the project. It has also recommended
that all blasting work on the project site must be stopped until the
affected people of the first village Jalud are rehabilitated.
The conclusions of the MOEF report unambiguously confirm the contentions
of the NBA and bear out the destructive potential of the Maheshwar dam.
Given the non-fulfillment of the a priori conditions, the NBA and the
people of Maheshwar call for a revoking of environmental clearance and
an immediate halt to dam construction.
The NBA also calls upon the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) to
revoke the techno-economic clearance provided to the dam. The CEA had
given a techno-economic clearance to the Project, subject to the
implementation of the environmental mitigative measures as stipulated
in MOEF's letter. In the face of flagrant and illegal violations of the
environmental clearance, the NBA demands that the CEA withdraw
techno-economic clearance as well and stop all project-related work. The
Tata Institute of Social Sciences report, the report of the Madhya
Pradesh government's Task Force and the MOEF field report all point to
innumerable resources which have so far not been accounted for, and the
NBA asks the CEA to order a fresh cost-benefit analysis of the Maheshwar
In the last 5 years the project promoters have recklessly inflated
project costs. The CEA should take cognizance of this adhoc increase in
project costs which make the cost of power from this project
prohibitive. Thus this project has ceased to be a public interest
project and in fact currently works against the interests of electricity
consumers in Madhya Pradesh. Clearly this is no longer a least cost
project but has become an inferior endeavor which must be rejected.
Over the last 4 weeks the people of the Maheshwar area have embarked on
an extensive postcard campaign. About 10,000 postcards against the
project have been signed by people affected by the project. 76% of the
total capital outlay for the Maheshwar project comes from foreign
sources, mainly German. In April 1999, during the course of a 21-day
fast by oustees and members of the NBA, 2 German utilities Bayernwerk
and VEW Energie which together would have contributed 49% of project
equity withdrew from Maheshwar refusing to be a party to environmental
and human rights violations.
However, the German Hypovereinsbank is preparing to give the Maheshwar
project a loan of Rs. 523 crores in order to allow Siemens to supply
equipment to the project and has applied to the German government to
guarantee the loan. The 10,000 postcards that will be brought to Delhi
by people in the impact zone of the Maheshwar dam call upon the German
government not to give this guarantee for their destruction, and give
notice of the fact that the people will never allow the dam to be built.
During the 3-day dharna, Maheshwar affected people will dialogue with
and interrogate all government institutions and structures responsible
for the functioning and monitoring of the project, such as the MOEF and
the CEA, as well as the institutions that will be giving loans and
guarantees to the project, including the Power Finance Corporation and
the German Embassy, so as to make them accountable and answerable to the
The people hope to receive satisfactory answers from these institutions
and are completely resolved to embark on indefinite public as well as
legal action if their demands are not met.
Mangat Verma, Village Lepa (Kasravat)
Sushila Bai, Village Mardana (Maheshwar)
Alok Agarwal, NBA Badwani